All About Landing Clearance

 

JeffatATCCommunications

ATC COMMUNICATION Podcost

Jeff Kanarish . http://atccommunication.com/

Question 1. You are following another aircraft on downwind in an airport traffic pattern. Your aircraft and the other aircraft are the only 2 aircraft in the pattern and there is no one waiting to take off. The aircraft ahead of you has been cleared to land. When may Tower issue a landing clearance to you?

Answer: Tower may issue a landing clearance as soon as the controller can determine there will be sufficient separation between your aircraft and the aircraft landing ahead of you.

  • Reference: J.O. 7110.65 3−10−6. ANTICIPATING SEPARATION
  • a. Landing clearance to succeeding aircraft in a landing sequence need not be withheld if you observe the positions of the aircraft and determine that prescribed runway separation will exist when the aircraft crosses the landing threshold.

Question 2. Using the same scenario as in question 1: What is the latest point in your approach to landing that Tower may issue a landing clearance to you?

Answer: There is no defined latest point in the regulations. Your tires must not touch the runway pavement until you receive landing clearance. With that in mind, Tower may clear you to land at any point prior to touchdown. It is more likely Tower will either clear you to land or tell you to go around prior to you crossing the runway threshold.

Question 3. It is daytime and the weather is clear. An aircraft ahead of you has just landed as you approach the runway. Must Tower ensure the preceding aircraft will be clear of the runway by the time you land before issuing a landing clearance to you?

Answer. No.

  • Reference: J.O. 7110.65 3−10−3. SAME RUNWAY SEPARATION
  • a. Separate an arriving aircraft from another aircraft using the same runway by ensuring that the arriving aircraft does not cross the landing threshold until one of the following conditions exists or unless authorized in para 3−10−10, Altitude Restricted Low Approach.
  • 1. The other aircraft has landed and is clear of the runway. Between sunrise and sunset, if you can determine distances by reference to suitable landmarks and the other aircraft has landed, it need not be clear of the runway if the following minimum distance from the landing threshold exists:
  • (a) When a Category I aircraft is landing behind a Category I or II− 3,000 feet.
  • (b) When a Category II aircraft is landing behind a Category I or II− 4,500 feet.
  • Jeff’s note: In most cases, tower will only issue landing clearance if the controller is certain the runway will be clear by the time you cross the landing threshold. The only situation I have ever seen a tower let 1 aircraft land with another aircraft on the runway is at a busy fly-in such as the EAA convention at Oshkosh. At military air bases and at civilian/military joint use airports, Tower will let one military aircraft land while another military aircraft is still on the runway. Also note the ICAO rules for this situation are the same rules applied by the FAA. However, in many countries outside of the U.S. controllers will only issue landing clearance when the preceding aircraft has actually cleared the runway. In those countries, anticipated separation is not used.

Question 4. You are in an airport traffic pattern and Tower says, “Make closed traffic.” Does this clearance also authorize you to touch down on the runway at the end of each approach to the runway?

Answer: No. Approval for closed traffic allows you to continue making circuits around the airport traffic pattern only. Each landing, touch-and-go or low approach must be approved separately.

  • Reference: AIM Pilot/Controller Glossary
  • CLOSED TRAFFIC− Successive operations involving takeoffs and landings or low approaches where the aircraft does not exit the traffic pattern.

Question 5. While flying around an airport traffic pattern, are you authorized to descend below traffic pattern altitude prior to receiving clearance to land?

Answer: Yes. A landing clearance has nothing to do with your position or altitude in the traffic pattern. You should begin a descent from traffic pattern altitude to establish a normal glidepath to the runway even though you have not received clearance to land. Tower may not clear you to land until you are established on base leg or final approach. If you waited to descend from traffic pattern altitude until base leg or final approach, you would likely not be able to establish a normal glidepath to the runway.

Question 6. You are currently turning onto base leg, for a full stop landing. Tower tells another aircraft to line up and wait on your landing runway. Is Tower allowed to give you a landing clearance right now? (There is no safety logic system installed for this runway.)

Answer: No.

  • Reference: J.O. 7110.65 3−10−5. LANDING CLEARANCE
  • b. Procedures.
  • 1. Facilities without a safety logic system or facilities with the safety logic system inoperative or in the limited configuration must not clear an aircraft for a full−stop, touch−and−go, stop−and−go, option, or unrestricted low approach when a departing aircraft has been instructed to line up and wait or is holding in position on the same runway. The landing clearance may be issued once the aircraft in position has started takeoff roll.

Question 7. You are currently holding short of a runway, and you have reported to tower that you are ready for an immediate departure. Another aircraft is on a 10-mile final approach for the runway you will use for takeoff. Tower tells that aircraft, “Cleared to land.” At this point, may Tower direct you to line up and wait? (No safety logic system is installed for this airport.)

Answer: No.

  • Reference: J.O. 7110.65 3−9−4. LINE UP AND WAIT (LUAW)
  • (b) Do not authorize an aircraft to LUAW if an aircraft has been cleared to land, touch−and−go, stop−and–go, option, or unrestricted low approach on the same runway.
  • Jeff’s note: In this situation, Tower would probably not clear the aircraft on 10-mile final to land. The controller would tell the aircraft on 10-mile final to “Continue.” The controller would then clear you for takeoff. Once you have acknowledged your takeoff clearance and have begun your takeoff roll, Tower would clear the other aircraft to land.

Question 8. Tower has cleared another aircraft to land on a runway that intersects your landing runway. It appears both you and the other aircraft will land on your respective runways at the same time. In this circumstance, you may receive a landing clearance provide you or the other aircraft agree to do what?

Answer: Land and hold short of the runway intersection.

  • Reference: J.O. 7110.65 3−10−4. INTERSECTING RUNWAY SEPARATION
  • a. Separate an arriving aircraft using one runway from another aircraft using an intersecting runway or a nonintersecting runway when the flight paths intersect by ensuring that the arriving aircraft does not cross the landing threshold or flight path of the other aircraft until one of the following conditions exists:
  • 2. A preceding arriving aircraft is clear of the landing runway, completed landing roll and will hold short of the intersection/flight path, or has passed the intersection/flight path. (Ed. Note: Underline added for emphasis.)

Question 9. You are following another aircraft on downwind in an airport traffic pattern. Tower clears the aircraft ahead to land. Tower does not give you landing clearance when you reach the same point where the other aircraft receive landing clearance. Assuming you have adequate spacing behind the preceding aircraft that was cleared to land, what might be the reason why you did not get landing clearance at that point?

Any of the following is an acceptable answer:

  • The aircraft ahead of you has stopped on the runway due to an emergency.
  • There is an obstruction on the runway such as airport vehicle, or debris.
  • There is an aircraft approaching the runway from another direction that is being sequenced to land ahead of you.
  • Tower has directed another aircraft to line up and wait on your landing runway.
  • The tower controller is on the landline, i.e. working on another issue.

Question 10. You are holding short of a runway and report ready to depart to Tower. Tower tells another aircraft on final approach, “Cleared low approach.” Under these conditions, is Tower allowed to tell you “line up and wait?” (No safety logic system is installed for this airport.)

Answer: No.

  • Reference: J.O. 7110.65 3−9−4. LINE UP AND WAIT (LUAW)
  • (b) Do not authorize an aircraft to LUAW if an aircraft has been cleared to land, touch−and−go, stop−and–go, option, or unrestricted low approach on the same runway.

Questions or comments for me? jeff@ATCcommunication.com

 

This entry was posted in Library. Bookmark the permalink.

Comments are closed.